Detecting wildlife orthologues for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)
MetadataShow full item record
Detection and quantification of cytokines is important to better understand disease processes in populations. This study assessed the feasibility of quantifying wildlife orthologues for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) using two bioassays combined with an in vitro model for immune stimulation. For all species, heparinized blood (1 ml) was exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 pg to 50 micro g) for 6 hr (37 degrees C) after which plasma was collected. Neutralizing antibodies were used to demonstrate that grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) TNF can be quantified with a WEHI-164 bioassay, and expression of TNF in the LPS stimulated model is dose-dependent. A B9 bioassay demonstrated LPS-dose-dependent production of IL-6 for grizzly bears, although neutralizing antibodies were not available to confirm that IL-6 was responsible for these results. The B9 assay may have detected IL-6 orthologues for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison). These assays combined with the LPS stimulated blood model could provide a rapid means for assessing immunological effects of pathogens and toxicants.