Understanding Hope and Self-Efficacy in Predicting Symptoms of Depression
Geiger, Katherine Anne
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Previous research has highlighted hope and self-efficacy as protective factors that typically predict positive outcomes, particularly in the mental health arena (e.g., Bandura, 1997; Snyder, 2002). Of particular relevance is the extent to which both hope and self-efficacy have been found to play a role in protecting against symptoms of depression. The present study proposed a new developmental model of depression, which hypothesized that hope would moderate and self-efficacy would mediate the relationship between stress and symptoms of depression. Results did not support the originally hypothesized model; however, an alternative model was examined and subsequently supported. In particular, results revealed a model where self-efficacy predicted levels of stress and hope, which both subsequently predicted symptoms of depression. Implications of these findings are discussed.