In 1997, there were an estimated 15.7 million diabetics in the United States alone, with an additional 798,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by abnormal glucose homeostasis, resulting in chronic hyperglycemia. Prolonged hyperglycemia has been associated with retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and nephropathy. As primary care providers, we need to seek out better and more effective treatments for this devastating disease. This paper will discuss: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, current research, adverse effects, and possible treatment options of diabetic agents lispro, troglitazone, glilnepiride, metformin, and acarbose.