Oral health in the pediatric population is a significant concern in the medical community. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease and the most preventable. While this integral part of children's health is assumed to be the responsibility of the specialty of dentistry, more times than not the child will make his or her first contact with the healthcare system through interaction with a primary care provider. This creates the need for nurse practitioners to work collaborativeiy with dental colleagues to perform thorough oral assessments and provide the necessary education to prevent oral disease. Practicing preventative medicine and intervening when necessary is vital to reduce the significance of poor oral health in this population. This article examines the role of the primary care provider in assessing, screening and referring children for dental related health conditions and reviews the current guidelines and implications for practice.