The Relationship between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Adult Male Drive for Muscularity
Whetstine-Richel, Melanie L.
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Childhood Gender Nonconformity and the Adult Male Drive for MuscularityAbstractby Melanie Lynn Whetstine-Richel, Ph.D.Washington State UniversityMay 2013Chair: Brian W. McNeillThe purpose of this research was to assess the relationship of childhood gender nonconformity in boys and the adult drive for muscularity in males ages 18-24. Research indicates that both childhood gender nonconformity and drive for muscularity can have detrimental psychological effects on men, including depression, anxiety and muscle dysmorphia, as well as physical effects such as muscle injuries. The purpose of this study is to assess childhood gender nonconformity as a predictor of adult drive for muscularity in males ages 18-24, using sexual orientation as a covariate. Male participants (n=170) completed the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale and the Kinsey Rating Scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicate a weak negative relationship between childhood gender nonconformity and adult drive for muscularity, a weak negative relationship between childhood gender nonconformity and muscle development behaviors and no relationship between gender nonconformity and body image attitudes.