A Conceptual Model of Consumers Online Tourism Confusion
Lu, Cheng Chieh
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The first paper proposed a conceptual model demonstrating the antecedents and outcomes of consumers' online tourism information confusion through the integration of information providers (i.e., online tourism marketers) and information receivers' (i.e., consumers) perspectives. From information providers' perspective, too much, too similar, and too ambiguous information provided by various online tourism websites are three major causes of consumers' confusion. From information receivers' perspective, five individual difference variables: Internet experience, learning orientation, tolerance of ambiguity, price consciousness, and need for cognition are proposed as important traits that might predispose consumers to confusion. Furthermore, five confusion reduction strategies derived from consumer confusion literature are included in the model as the outcomes of consumers' online tourism information confusion. Managerial implications for online tourism marketers are provided.. From information recipient's perspective, the second paper developed a research model with three individual characteristics (1. learning orientation 2. price consciousness 3. need for cognition) representing important antecedents and five confusion reduction strategies (1. sharing/delegate the purchase 2. seek additional information 3. rely on familiar websites and sources 4. abandon the purchase 5. clarify the purchase goals) representing important outcomes of travelers online tourism confusion. Data of this study was collected from 437 tourism website users, and six proposed hypotheses were tested utilizing a structural equation modeling approach and a series of regression analysis. Managerial implications for online tourism marketers who want to address consumers' confusion in online tourism domain are provided.The third paper examined the relationships among materialism, ecotourism attitude, ecotourism interest, ecotourism intention, and willingness to pay a premium for ecotourism utilizing a model that was developed based on the literature. Data for this study were collected from 2,352 Italian travelers and proposed hypotheses were tested utilizing a structural equation modeling approach. Findings indicated that individuals' materialistic value has negative relationships with their ecotourism attitude, ecotourism interest, ecotourism intention, and willingness to pay a premium for ecotourism products and services. Findings also suggested that individuals' ecotourism attitude would positively influence ecotourism intention, ecotourism interest, and willingness to pay a premium for ecotourism products and services.