External Correlates of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD-Inattention Symptom Dimensions for Teachers' Ratings of Nepali Children
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Goal: The overall goal of the present study was to garner additional support for the construct validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) relative to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-predominantly inattentive presentation (ADHD-IN). Four objectives were outlined: (i) to evaluate the convergent validity and the discriminant validity of the eight SCT and nine ADHD-IN symptoms; (ii) to determine the reliability and across-time stability of the SCT and ADHD-IN dimensions; (iii) to evaluate the factor correlations of SCT and ADHD-IN with other symptom dimensions (ADHD-HI, ODD towards peers, anxiety, depression) and impairments (academic, social, and peer rejection); and (iv) to determine the unique relationships of SCT and ADHD-IN with other dimensions and impairments. Method: Participants were 61 teachers from Kathmandu, Nepal, who completed ratings for six children (Grades 1 to 6) two times (one-month interval). The Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) (Burns et al., 2014), and the Dishion Social Acceptance Scale (DSAS) (Dishion, 1990) were utilized. Results: Six of the eight SCT symptoms showed convergent validity and discriminant validity. The SCT and ADHD-IN factors showed good reliability and one-month stability coefficients with the values being similar. Cross-sectional results of the present study showed that higher SCT scores predicted lower ADHD-HI and ODD towards peers (Time 1 only), whereas higher ADHD-IN predicted higher scores on ADHD-HI and ODD towards peers. Additionally, higher SCT scores predicted higher anxiety and depression (Time 2 only) unique from ADHD-IN’s relationship with anxiety and depression. Also, higher levels of SCT predicted higher levels of academic and social impairments unique from ADHD-IN’s relationship with academic and social impairments. Higher levels of SCT also predicted higher levels of peer rejection (Time 2 only) unique from ADHD-IN’s relationship with peer rejection. Furthermore, results of the longitudinal analyses in the present study showed that SCT was uniquely related to depression, academic impairment, and social impairment, even across time. Conclusion: The present study adds to the mounting evidence that SCT is a distinct construct from ADHD-IN and that SCT has unique external correlates both cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally.